The Correctional System in the Philippines is composed of six agencies under three distinct and separate departments of the national government:
DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT - under this are the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology (BJMP) which runs the city, municipal, and district jails; and the provincial jails through their respective provincial governments.
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE AND DEVELOPMENT - under this is Juvenile and Justice Welfare Council which oversees the rehabilitation of young offenders.
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE - under this are the Bureau of Corrections, Parole and Probation Administration and the Board of Pardons and Parole.
Offenders convicted by the courts to serve sentences of three years or more are kept at the prison facilities of the bureau of corrections: they are classified as national prisoners. those meted with lighter sentences, as well as those with pending cases before the regional trial courts, are confined in provincial jails under the local government; while those awaiting trial in municipal trial courts or serving light penalties (e.g., infraction of city or municipal ordinances) are detained in city, municipal or district jails under the bureau of jail management and penology. juvenile delinquents are normally sent to youth rehabilitation centers under the juvenile justice and welfare council pursuant to R.A. 9344 unless the sentencing judge specifically orders for them to be confined at the national penitentiary, as in cases where the juvenile convict acted with discernment or the offense committed was grave.
LEGAL BASIS :
The BUREAU OF PRISONS was established on November 1, 1905 under the DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION through REORGANIZATION ACT ACT 1407 of the PHILIPPINE COMISSION until it was Trasferred to the DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (DOJ).
The PRISON LAW incorparated in chapter 45 of the revised ADMINISTRATIVE CODE OF 1917.
SECTION 26 of the ADMINSTRATIVE CODE OF 1987 issued November 23, 1989 under PROCLAMATION NO. 495 of the PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES change the name of the BUREAU OF PRISON to BUREAU OF CORRECTIONS.
On May 24, 2013, PRISIDENT BENIGNO SIMEON C. AQUINO III signed into law the REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10575/ otherwise known as THE BUREAU OF CORRECTIONS ACT of 2013 which provides for the modernization, Professionalization and Restructuring of the bureau.